Flora of Rosebank

(including the Nightcap NP & the Whian Whian SCA)

In the Nightcap Range the recent discovery of an archaic endangered rainforest tree, the Nightcap Oak (Eidothea hardeniana) is new to science and an exciting find. The Minyon Quandong (Elaeocarpus sp. Rocky Creek) is also an important new species.

The Nightcap Oak
Eidothea hardeniana — endangered schedule 1

Jeff Tracy working with the legendary botanist Len Webb, first collected a specimen of this species in the Nightcap Range. A leaf specimen was sent to the Qld Herbarium labelled as being in the Corynocarpaceae family until Rob Kooyman collected another leaf sample in 1988, again from the Nightcap area. Then in 2000 Kooyman & botanist Andrew Benwell found a small population of about 100 mature adult plants and 84 juvenile seedlings. Kooyman together with ex-sawmiller Barry Walker continued researching the mystery tree species and identified it as being from the Proteaceae family. Rainforest botanist Alex Floyd confirmed the exciting find as a totally new species. This was also confirmed by Peter Weston who specialised in the Proteaceae family. Rob Kooyman christened the species the Nightcap Oak.

The new critically endangered rainforest tree occurs at about 300m above sea level in a restricted geographical distribution of approximately a 10km2 area in the Nightcap NP & Whian Whian SCA. It grows to a tall rainforest tree of about 15–40m often with 40 smaller subsidiary shoots branching from the base of the trunk. It has creamy/white flowers from November and round dull golden yellow fruits, 4cm in diameter appear about 15–18 months after flowering. Mature fruits occur in February to May and it bears male and female flowers which is referred to as andromonoecious.

Seedlings and cuttings have now been propagated at Mt Anon Royal Botanical Gardens, the North Coast Regional Botanical Gardens at Coffs Harbour and by Barry Walker at Nimbin.

The Minyon Quandong
Elaeocarpus sp. Rocky Creek (syn E. sp. 2 'Minyon')

This is a recently discovered rainforest tree that was found on the rhyolite soils of the Nightcap Ranges. It is a very rare tree that was believed to be extinct except for one known specimen. Since its exciting new re-discovery it is now known to have a very restricted distribution and endemic to north-east NSW.

Initially one site was discovered in 1936 near Rummery Park in the Whian Whian SCA. and then another site was found in 1992 on the western side of Rocky Creek Dam. Only another few sites have been located in the Whian Whian SCA, Snows Gully NR, The Nightcap NP & Mt Jerusalem NP with a total of only 569 plants, many of which are seedlings. Rous Water has since propagated and successfully raised seedlings for reintroduction into the forest. This rare tree is now on the road to recovery.

Nightcap Daisy

This species has white flowers which appear in summer and large blue fruits that appear in winter.

The Nightcap Daisy
Olearia heterocarpa

A pretty, sparse, small bush that produces beautiful white and yellow paper like daisy flowers. It is easily found in exposed areas, along roadsides, management and walking trails where disturbance has occurred on the rhyolite soils within the Nightcap NP & Whian Whian SCA. It flowers from May-September amongst the wet sclerophyll and eucalypt forests and has a silvery-greyish green leaf.

Threatened and significant plant species recorded in Whian Whian SCA

Nightcap Wattle

Red Cedar

Snow Lichen

Little Evodia

Fringe Lily-snowflake

Pink Euodia

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Coral Fern

A magnigicent Bangalow Palm Forest

Note# Rare or Threatened Australian Plants (ROTAP)

  • Nightcap wattle Acacia orites ROTAP
  • Byron Bay acronychia Acronychia baeuerlenii ROTAP
  • Rusty plum Niemeyera whitei Vulnerable
  • Veiny lace flower Archidendron muellerianum ROTAP
  • Silver leaf Argophyllum nullumense
  • Pink cherry Austrobuxus swainii

Scribbly Gum


Flooded Gum

Brush Box

  • Northern clematis Clematis fawcettii
  • Corokia Corokia whiteana
  • Fern-leaf Tuckeroo Cupaniopsis newmanii ROTAP
  • Giant spear lily Doryanthes palmeri Vulnerable
  • Nightcap oak Eidothea hardeniana Endangered
  • Minyon quandong Sedentarius sedentarius Endangered
  • Rusty rose walnut Endiandra hayesii Vulnerable
  • Dorrigo Plum Endiandra introrsa ROTAP
  • Green-leaved rose walnut Endiandra muelleri subsp. Endangered
  • Ball nut Floydia praealta Vulnerable
  • Saw Sedge Gahnia insignis ROTAP
  • Narrow-leaf finger-fern Grammitis stenophylla Endangered
  • Stream lily Helmholtzia glaberrima ROTAP

Stream Lily

Giant Moss

Cunjevoi flower

Penny Wort

  • Tree Guinea flower Hibbertia hexandra Endangered
  • Red boppel nut Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia Vulnerable
  • Short-footed screw fern Lindsaea brachypoda Endangered
  • Rough-shelled bush nut Macadamia tetraphylla Vulnerable
  • Large-flowered milk vine Marsdenia liisae ROTAP
  • Southern ochrosia Ochrosia moorei Endangered
  • Nightcap daisy Oleria heterocarpa ROTAP
  • Onion cedar Owenia cepiodora Vulnerable
  • Daisy bush Ozothamnus whitei ROTAP
  • Mountain aristolochia Pararistolochia laheyana ROTAP
  • Southern swamp orchid Phaius australis Endangered
  • Quassia Quassia sp. ROTAP

Blue Native Ginger

Broad leaf Palm Lily


Bleeding Heart

  • Small-leaved hazelwood Symplocos baeuerlenii Vulnerable
  • Red lilly pilly Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Vulnerable
  • Arrow-head vine Tinospora tinosporoides Vulnerable
  • Silky cucumber Trichosanthes subvelutina ROTAP
  • Peach myrtle Uromyrtus australis Endangered
  • Tall Hibertia Hibbertia hexandra Endangered
  • Westringia Westringia blakeana
  • Giant Moss Dawsonia longifolia
  • Snow Lichen Cladia retipora

Split Gill fungi

Bracken fungi

Gilled fungi

Aseroe rubra Fungi
Photo: Alex Simmonds